Effective leadership does not occur by chance. Leaders must be trained and groomed for the daunting responsibility of leading organizations. Research shows that half of the people currently in leadership positions will fail. Why they fail and what can be done to prevent failure are the main subjects of this book. It shows that effective leadership is possible and illustrates why and how, based on research and case studies from an epidemiological perspective. The epidemiological word “determinant” is used frequently, and is a word that no other book on leadership uses. Epidemiologists work from two basic principles: namely, that all diseases have determinants and that diseases do not occur randomly. In other words, there are always causes for diseases and patterns that describe how diseases spread. Effective and ineffective leadership always have determinants that are not randomly distributed; the impacts are uniformly and deeply spread throughout an organization. Like the epidemiologists, this book not only identifies leadership determinants, but also provides research-based “antidotes” at the end of each chapter, along with a summary of the most salient points in the chapter. This book offers examples of leadership and governance from the non-profit sector, businesses, public and private education, higher education, and other organizations, highlighting over 50 case studies to illustrate concepts about leadership.